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Figure 1 Olive plant ("Taylors olea europaea," 2010)




Plant
Olive is an evergreen tree (figure 1). The scientific name of olive plant is Olea europaea (Faucon, 2005). It can grow about 5 feet in height and can spread about 30 feet (California, 2007). It also has silvery green leaves with the attractive gnarled branches pattern which is quite distinctive (California, 2007). Olive trees are like most other sub- tropical tress which prefers a light warm ground that does not thrive in rich alluvial land and can grows well on hilly and rock surfaces (Bleasdale, 2009). Although it can accommodate itself to almost any variety of soil but having an excess amount of moisture is harmful (Bleasdale, 2009). These trees originated in the Mediterranean region ("Where do olives," 2008). After that it spreads to the surrounding areas which have been evidence that the olive tree has been cultivated for about 9000 years ("Where do olives," 2008). Now it has been introduced into many countries of the world, but still it grows mainly in the Mediterranean countries. Spain, Italy, Greece, Turkey, and Tunisia are the largest worldwide wide producers (figure 2) ("Where do olives," 2008).




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Figure 2 Mediterranean Region ("Mediterranean region," 2008)






Product
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Figure 3 Types of Olive oil ("Type of olive," 2010)


Olive oil is the product which is mainly used from olive plant. Olive oil has been considered the most beneficial oil around the world since many years. There are four types of olive oil (figure 3) (Filippnoe, 2008). First type of olive oil is extra virgin olive oil with only 1% of acid and has been considered the finest and fruitiest, and also the most expensive. Second type is the virgin olive oil with high acid level (Filippnoe, 2008). Third type is Fino olive oil which is a blend of extra virgin and virgin olive oils (Filippnoe, 2008). And the last type is the light olive oil which contains the same amount of beneficial monounsaturated fats as other olive oil does but in this type of oil the more refining process happens and due to that it is light (Filippnoe, 2008). The olive oil if obtained from olive fruit (figure 4).







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Figure 4 Olive fruit ("Mission olive tree," 2009)






Making the Product

The making of Olive oil are always same, the steps are outlined in Figure 5. Thing to be remembering is that harvest should be done by skilled workers.
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Figure 5 Process of Making Olive oil (The Olive oil, 2010)





Beneficial Impacts

Olive oil has enormous benefits, internally and externally. Firstly, it aids in digestion making metabolic process easier ("Olive oil benefits," n.d). Furthermore it helps the immune system and contributes to fight against stomach ulcers ("Olive oil benefits," n.d). Nonetheless, the most astonishing benefit that oil is extremely rich in iron and Vitamins such as A,B1, B2, C, E, and D vitamins ("Olive oil benefits," n.d). Among all the vitamins that are present, the vitamin E is the most important because it helps to fight the aging process, and other vitamins assure a balanced diet and improve the effectiveness and developments of the body ("Olive oil benefits," n.d). Secondly, to clear stopped ears, putting a few drops of lukewarm of olive oil can get rid of that ear complaint ("Olive oil benefits," n.d). Thirdly, to prevent a hair loss and to moisturize skin it is a very good source too ("Olive oil benefits," n.d). Last and least, soaking your nails each night in the olive oil and washing it in the morning helps to build a strong fingernail ("Olive oil benefits," n.d).

The olive also has been considered as a sign of peace and friendship which is stated in holy book "Quran", and with a lot of benefits. It mentions that olive is a holy tree so treat like it since it cures the Anal Fissure ("Zaitoon (olive) is," 2005). It also stated that it can cure 70 diseases and one of them is leprosy ("Zaitoon (olive) is," 2005). It can relieve muscular pain by massaging over the muscular tones. Also, it mentions that olive leaves in water are really effective against mouth and lips ulcers and for allergic dermatitis ("Zaitoon (olive) is," 2005). The leaves (figure 6) are very effective against dental cavities ("Zaitoon (olive) is," 2005). To remove constipation the pickles prepared form olive fruits, and the application of olive oil in eyes relieves the inflammation ("Zaitoon (olive) is," 2005).



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Figure 6 Olive leaves ("Olive leaf ," 2010)

Harmful Impacts
Although there are many beneficial impacts of olive oil but there are some of harmful impacts too. Ingesting large amount of olive oil and being allergic can lead to mild diarrhea ("Olive oil side," 2007). However, taking medications for diabetes or blood pressure and consuming olive oil at the same time can cause the sugar level and blood pressure go low causing further complications ("Olive oil side," 2007). Omega-9 fatty acids make the most of the olive oil, and these fatty acids are constricting the blood vessel to damage, and the lining called the endothelium can be injured (Jaret, 2005). And if a diabetic patient is ingesting the olive oil leads to damage the blood vessel linings will have a worse dangerous condition (Jaret, 2005).

In the process of making olive oil the Olive Mill Wastewater known as “OMW” is generated, which is the main waste product in the industry of olive ("Reducing the environmental," 2008). In the environment the disposal and treatment of OMW is serious because it has toxicity to micro organisms ("Reducing the environmental," 2008). This is unpleasant odor and threat to surface and groundwater surfaces ("Reducing the environmental," 2008).




Conclusion
Olive plant has been known for its benefits around the world. It grows best in drained soil areas and where the pH is 8.5. Around the world, it mostly grows in the Mediterranean region. Olive products come from olive fruits, and the popular product is the olive oil. The benefits of the olive oil are endless and the harmful impacts are less. And the olive oil is too popular because of its benefits and people has been using since centuries.



References
Webpage citations:

1) Faucon, P. (2005, 02). Olive(olea eurpaea). Retrieved from http://www.desert-tropicals.com/Plants/Oleaceae/Olea_europaea.html
2) California, r. (2007, 10). Olive fruit facts. Retrieved from http://www.crfg.org/pubs/ff/olive.html
3) Where do olives trees groww. (2008). Retrieved from http://wanttoknowit.com/where-do-olive-trees-grow/
4) Filippnoe, P.T. (2008, 08). Type of olive oil. Retrieved from http://homecooking.about.com/od/fruit/a/oliveoiltypes.htm
5) Zaitoon (olive) is cure for seventy diseases. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.islamicvoice.com/february.2000/medicine.htm
6) Olive oil side effects & benefits. (2007). Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/about_5347364_olive-oil-side-effects-benefits.html

Articles citations:
1) Olive oil benefits are simply amazing!. (n.d). Retrieved from http://www.grandmas-wisdom.com/olive-oil-benefits.html
2) Olive oil side effects & benefits. (2007). Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/about_5347364_olive-oil-side-effects-benefits.html
3) Jaret, P. (2005). Say no to olive oil?. Health Feature, Retrieved from http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=50711

Journal citation:

1) Reducing the environmental impact of olive mill wastewater. (2008). American Journal environmental science, Retrieved from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_6960/is_1_5/ai_n39151788/

Book citation:

1) Bleasdale, J.I. (2009). The olive tree and its products [73.690]. (Adobe Digital Editions version), Retrieved from http://books.google.ca/books?id=VzZ-AAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false
Picture citations:
1) Taylors olea europaea (olive) plant . (2010). Retrieved from http://www.capitalgardens.co.uk/olea-europaea-olive-plant-p-20721.html
2) Mediterranean region. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.mcmhyd.com/mediter.htm
3) Type of olive oil . (2010). Retrieved from http://dailyme.com/gallery/industry-term/olive-oil.html
4) Mission olive tree. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.willisorchards.com/product/Mission+Olive+Tree?category=271
5) The Olive oil source, (2010). Extraction process l the olive oil source (1.805.688.1014). n.d: n.d. Retrieved from http://www.oliveoilsource.com/page/extraction-process
6) Olive leaf . (2010). Retrieved from http://www.mdidea.com/products/proper/proper06207.html