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Figure 1 Cocoa tree
What is the Cocoa Tree

The cocoa tree is eleven to sixteen feet far above the ground with red flowers and green leaves (Alice, 2009). Bark colour is a mixture of white and light brown. The fruit is red with bits of yellow coming out the centre when ripped (Alice, 2009). It is an evergreen tree with alternating leaves ten to thirty cm long (Figure 1). Leaves are toxic filled with buttery, smooth fluid. The tree lives around thirty to fifty years in humid climate. The scientific name for Cocoa Tree is Theobroma Cacao.

Where is the Cocoa Tree found

The cocoa tree only grows in tropical regions with rainfall from time to time and great soil (Alice, 2009). The cocoa tree is commonly found in the Asia, Amazon, Africa, Central America, South America, Nigeria, Ghana, Dominican Republic and Mexico (Figure 2).

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Figure 2- Map of Cocoa growing Regions

Product - Chocolate

The Cocoa Tree is well known for the use of making chocolate (Figure 3).The pods that grow out from the trunk hold the cocoa beans which are used for chocolate products. The pods usually contains from thirty to sixty individual beans also called seeds. they are surrounded in pale, white pulp. Pulp is removed and only beans are used for manufacture. Some other products made from this typical plant are; Cocoa powder, chocolate syrup, chocolate milk, chocolate cookies, cakes, and chocolate truffles. Some chocolates made from cocoa are; After eight, Cadbury, Ferrero, Mars, Milkyway, Hershey's, Kit Kat, Mountain Fresh, Twix, Toblerone, Toms, Snickers, M&M's and Kinder (Charles M. 2007).

Making The Product



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Figure 3- Flowchart outlining steps of processing chocolate

Beneficial Impacts

The white oderless flesh inside of the cocoa pod is used in beauty ointment such as lotion, gel, cream, and balm (Martin, 2010). These products are used by woman and men from all around the world. It is also used as an outside layer or covering for some medical pills(Martin, 2010). These medical pills may be used by ill patients in hospitals or homes. Cocoa beans are also formed into cocoa powder which is for baking, pastries and cookies. Cocoa powder is usually the type sold to most families since it can be used in a variety of different ways.

Way back when Cocoa trees were still not well developed, farmers learned Cocoa trees not only need the sunlight but also require plenty of shade(Growing cocoa.14, 2010). When the Cocoa tree is planted into the soil for the fisrt 3 to 4 years they need shade. In order to give them shade, they planted banana trees beside them and cut them down once they’re big enough so that they can get the sunlight needed (Growing cocoa.14, 2010).

This particular technique was then used everywhere Cocoa trees were planted. They were much more healthier and flourished more pods each year (Growing cocoa.14, 2010). The Cocoa trees also lived much longer lives. Economy grew larger in the selling of cocoa beans around the world.

Chocolate replaced traditional indian sweets because chocolates have less calories than indian sweets. Also because they may contain other ingridients like nuts, which are high in carbohydrates.

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Figure 4- Traditional sweets

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Figure 5- Table screening main crop season in diverse countires



Harmful Impacts

The bad weather conditions and diseases are the major problems leading to lost of production all around the world. Approximately 30% production of Cocoa trees are vanished due to diseases (Diseases. 17, 2010). The most common disease effecting production is the swollen shoot virus. You know the tree has this disease when the golden pods are no longer golden, but black and dried out. Another disease called the witches broom devastates thousands of Cocoa trees when spread (Diseases. 17, 2010).

Cocoa trees in Africa are underdeveloping the full growth age due to fungus, insects and lack of water supply. Africa holds two-thirds of cocoa manufacture and so this is a huge problem that needs to be fixed (Diseases. 17, 2010). Also the prices of cocoa beans have increased almost doubling-up the amount due to massive loss of trees.

Insect that kills the Cocoa pods are called cocoa mirids (Diseases. 17, 2010). They puncture the pod from the outside. They kill large amounts of penetrated cells and produce unattractive necotic lesions.


Conclusion

The Cocoa tree is a small evergreen tree that produces cocoa beans. The beans are located inside of the pods that grow right from the side of the truck. They are red in colour with a little touch of yellow. The pod usually contains thirty to sixty individual beans. They grow in tropical regions, south of the equator. The Cocoa tree is well known for the use of making chocolate. Some chocolates like, Twix, Snickers, Kinder, Milkyway, and Mars. The cocoa tree does not only come in use for chocolate but also makes beauty products. The flesh inside of the pod surrounding the beans is what is used for these products. One products is lotion. The Cocoa tree habitually has a banana tree growing next to it for the first couple of years providing it some shade. This tree is extremely delicate. Bad weather conditions and lack of water can harm the plant very easily. A common disease effecting production is called the swollen shoot virus. During this, the pods turn black and dry.

References

Picture Citations:
1. Brain, Marshall. (2010). How chocolate works. (Brain, 2010)
http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/chocolate-ripe.jpg
2. Megan, InTaber itials. (2006). Cocoa futures information. (Megan, 2006)
http://www.commodityalmanac.com/futures-fast-facts/cocoa-map.gif
3. Indian sweets . (2009). Dreamstime. (Indian sweets , 2009)
http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/thumblarge_457/1259762428m5l6Xy.jpg


Text Citations:
1. LastPeck, InRobert itials. Growing the cocoa bean . Washington,: (LastPeck)
http://www.worldcocoafoundation.org/learn-about-cocoa/tree-to-table/growing.asp
2. LastBHAVAN, InKERAitials. (2010). About the crop - cocoa ::. (LastBHAVAN, 2010)
http://dacnet.nic.in/cashewcocoa/cprocess.htm#about
3. Adm cocoa, processing plant, pennsylvania, usa. (2010). Pennsylvania : (Adm cocoa, processing, 2010)
http://www.foodprocessing-technology.com/projects/archer-daniels/
4. Chocolate tree, cacao, cocoa tree. (2010). Florida - USA: (Chocolate tree, cacao,, 2010)
http://toptropicals.com/catalog/uid/THEOBROMA_CACAO.htm
5. Diseases of the cocoa tree (theobroma cacao). (2010). (Diseases of the, 2010)
http://annmariekostyk.com/2010/04/17/diseases-of-the-cocoa-tree-theobroma-cacao/
6. Grieve, Initials. (2008). Cacaotheobroma cacao. (M.Grieve, 2008)
http://botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/c/cacao-02.html
7. Tropical cocoa tree tropical plants . (2009). (Tropical cocoa tree, 2009)
http://www.tropical-plants-flowers-and-decor.com/cocoa-tree.html

8. LasNutrition,t, InitiRaintree als. (2010). Tropical plant database . Carson City, : (LasNutrition,t, 2010)
http://www.rain-tree.com/chocolate.htm


Encyclopedia:
1. Cocoa . (2010). encyclopedia: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., . (Cocoa , 2010)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cocoa
2. from Wikipedia,ast, Initials. (2010). Theobroma cacao. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., . (LFrom Wikipedia,ast, 2010)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theobroma_cacao


Books:
1. LastDespréaux, IniDenistials. (2005). Improvement of cocoa tree resistance to phytophthora diseases. France : (LastDespréaux, 2005)
http://books.google.ca/books?id=inmgqfRL3hAC&source=gbs_navlinks_s