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Cinchona tree==



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Figure 1. Cinchona tree (Cinchona tree Inc., Carson City, NV 8970)
By: Sobia Chandralingam


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Introduction
Cinchona comes from a family Rubiaceae with a scientific name same as “cinchona” and is a genus of 38 species. The height of cinchona tree is around 15 to 45 feet. Also when the conditions prime, it can grow up to 100 feet. That’s why this tree referred as shrub and a tree. The leaves of this tree are flat, broad and rounded shape and the length is between 4 to 18 inches. The colour of the flower is pink and white which have silly hair over them. The fruit is small and contain many seeds. This plant mostly grows in native South America, especially of Peru, but parts are found of Asia and Indonesia. The climate suitable for is usually the slopes of mountain which are rich in volcanic soils and receive a rainfall of about 1,500 cm per year.


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Flower
Figure 2. (Flower of cinchona tree,Roseanne 1998)
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Product

T This product produced from the Cinchona tree is called Quinine. It is obtained from the tree bark and is used to treat for malaria. First, they take the bark from the tree and dry it under the sunlight for one day and then make it into a powder which is called Quinine.
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Molecular structure of Quinine
Figure 3. (Quinine.UK, n.d.).



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Figure 4.(Symptoms of malaria, 2002)




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Figure 5. (Parasite life cycle, Eric, 1992)
( Malaria passes through your blood into your liver,where it grows and develop. After it completed its development
it travel back into your bloodstreams and attacks your red blood cells,which you need to carry oxygen around your body.)

In 2002 , most people in India and Sri Lanka got Malaria.Malaria is mostly made from dirty water which stayed for long time.

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Figure 6. ( Malaria)

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images.jpeg600px-Straight_Line_Steady.svg.pngcinchona.jpg 600px-Straight_Line_Steady.svg.png cinchona_bark_MP_001.jpg 600px-Straight_Line_Steady.svg.png cinchona_bark.jpg 600px-Straight_Line_Steady.svg.png Quinine_260_mg-WAT.jpg

Cinchona tree , bark of a cinchona tree , Bark broken down into small pieces, Pieces shredded into more refine particles , Quinine tablets
made using
machinery

(how to make Quinine product)
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Quinine is an anti-fever agent whose bark is the most important part which is used in different cultures in diverse ways. For example, in Europe it is used as a bitter tonic for fever reducer. It is also used for treating irregular heartbeats and anemia2. Quinine as a medication helps to reduce the parasite content in one’s body which helps to diminish the transfer of disease from one person to another, hence resulting in eliminating the disease completely. Alternately, it can be used for leg cramps and as a source of curing intestinal parasites. Also, it is used for people suffering from heart conditions and for stimulating digestive juices.

Previously, people used the bark of cinchona tree for treatment. They boiled it in water and drank that bitter water or used it in powdered form. After the discovery of quinine, people found the medicine to be more effective way of fighting diseases even though it came from the same plant.
In the 1700’s when the Spanish reached Peru, they found a lot of Cinchona trees and to fuel for the malaria supply, they ended up cutting down the trees to meet the demands of the sick population. This resulted in deforestation in the Loja province in Ecuador.

Recently, scientists have found another medicine called Artesunate. They have determined that using artesunate reduces the mortality rate in children compared to quinine. Also, it is considered safer and easy to monitor.

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Therefore, the Cinchona tree was good for old generation people but not for the new generation people. The old generation people provided evidences that showed that the tree can treat diseases like malaria and used it to save most people at that time. Now people have found a new use of the cinchona tree, which decreases mortality in children and is safer to monitor. Now, more people are finding different advantages with cinchona tree.
References
  1. http://www2.cochrane.org/reviews/en/ab005967.htmlhttp://www.ethnoleaflets.com/leaflets/quinine.htm
Cheryl, motelys. (2002). Cinchona and its product--quinine. 2.
2. http://www.iloveindia.com/indian-herbs/cinchona-officinalis.html
Ritelu, Kan. (2003). Quinine. 2.
3. Malaria: poverty, race, and public health in the United States By Margaret Humphreys
4. http://www.rain-tree.com/quinine.htm
Kumura, N., et al. “Synthesis and biological activity of fatty acid derivatives of quinine.” Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2005; 69(11): 2250-3.
5. http://www.herbs2000.com/herbs/herbs_cinchona.htm
Mona, Vasals. (2002). Cinchona. 1.
6. http://www2.cochrane.org/reviews/en/ab005967.html
Jones KL, Initials. (2007). Artesunate versus quinine for treating severe malaria. 2.